Complex polarization propagator in the X-ray region

Objectives

  • Learn how to run a complex polarization propagator (CPP) calculation.

Keypoints

  • Run a CPP calculation.

  • Plot the absorption spectrum.

  • Perform scalability test of the CPP calculation.

Introduction

In this exercise we will use an efficient implementation of the complex polarization propagator approach (CPP) to compute the near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectrum of free-base porphyrin.

Conventional response theory solves a generalized eigenvalue problem and provides excitation energies starting from the lowest excited states. It is therefore impractical to study spectral regions with high density-of-states. The CPP approach introduces a damping term which, from a purely computational perspective, removes the singularities of the response functions at resonance frequencies. The damped response theory can be applied to any frequency region of interest. You may read more in this paper [KN14]

The CPP solver in VeloxChem will solve multiple frequencies simultaneously. The complex response equations for a given frequency can be expressed in terms of a coupled set of linear equations for a real symmetric matrix

\[\begin{split}\begin{pmatrix} E^{[2]} & -\omega S^{[2]} & \gamma S^{[2]} & 0 \\ -\omega S^{[2]} & E^{[2]} & 0 & \gamma S^{[2]} \\ \gamma S^{[2]} & 0 & -E^{[2]} &\omega S^{[2]} \\ 0 & \gamma S^{[2]} & \omega S^{[2]} & -E^{[2]} \end{pmatrix} \begin{pmatrix} X^R_g\\ X^R_u\\ X^I_u\\ X^I_g \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} G^R_g\\ G^R_u\\ -G^I_u\\ -G^I_g \end{pmatrix}\end{split}\]

Here, \(\omega\) is the frequency, \(\gamma\) is the damping parameter, \(E^{[2]}\) and \(S^{[2]}\) are the Hessian and metric matrices, respectively, and \(G\) is the gradient vector. The \(R\)/\(I\) superscripts denote real/imaginary components, while the \(g\)/\(u\) subscripts denote gerade/ungerade symmetry.

System: free-base porphyrin

Input file

Below is the input file for a CPP calculation of free-base porphyrin. You can read more about the VeloxChem input keywords in this page.

@jobs
task: response
@end

@method settings
xcfun: b3lyp
basis: def2-svp
@end

@response
property: absorption (cpp)
frequencies: 10.01 - 10.17 (0.0016)
@end

@molecule
charge: 0
multiplicity: 1
xyz:
H  3.209599995  3.172309777  0.000000000
N  0.000000000 -2.113600613  0.000000000
N  2.031813914  0.000000000  0.000000000
N  0.000000000  2.113600613  0.000000000
N -2.031813914  0.000000000  0.000000000
C  1.126850920 -2.888627221  0.000000000
C -1.126850920 -2.888627221  0.000000000
C  1.126850920  2.888627221  0.000000000
C -1.126850920  2.888627221  0.000000000
C  2.850160984 -1.083939750  0.000000000
C  2.850160984  1.083939750  0.000000000
C -2.850160984 -1.083939750  0.000000000
C -2.850160984  1.083939750  0.000000000
C  0.683827200 -4.249372023  0.000000000
C -0.683827200 -4.249372023  0.000000000
C  0.683827200  4.249372023  0.000000000
C -0.683827200  4.249372023  0.000000000
C  4.248378966 -0.675836785  0.000000000
C  4.248378966  0.675836785  0.000000000
C -4.248378966 -0.675836785  0.000000000
C -4.248378966  0.675836785  0.000000000
C  2.433989580 -2.416542873  0.000000000
C -2.433989580 -2.416542873  0.000000000
C -2.433989580  2.416542873  0.000000000
C  2.433989580  2.416542873  0.000000000
H  1.341416542 -5.103998738  0.000000000
H -1.341416542 -5.103998738  0.000000000
H  1.341416542  5.103998738  0.000000000
H -1.341416542  5.103998738  0.000000000
H  5.096138011 -1.344322017  0.000000000
H  5.096138011  1.344322017  0.000000000
H -5.096138011 -1.344322017  0.000000000
H -5.096138011  1.344322017  0.000000000
H  3.209599995 -3.172309777  0.000000000
H -3.209599995 -3.172309777  0.000000000
H -3.209599995  3.172309777  0.000000000
H  0.000000000 -1.102285542  0.000000000
H  0.000000000  1.102285542  0.000000000
@end

Exercise

  • Submit a job

    Runs the above example on 16 nodes. On Beskow this will take around 9 minutes so please make sure that you specify a proper walltime limit in the job script.

  • Plot and analyse the spectrum

    The absorption spectrum will be printed at the end of the output file. Compare this to the results provided in this Jupyter notebook on MyBinder, where analysis of polarization dependence and the association of features to chemically unique atoms is also available. Results for a smaller system (vinylfluoride) are also available.

  • Run scalability test

    Run the CPP calculation on fewer number of nodes and plot the speedup with respect to the number of nodes.